AsiaYouthMedia 亚青传媒 sinazen.com

  

 Singapore                Social社会                Life文化               历史History    

Luxun 文学杂谈

Mysteries of Lu Xun
1. Background
Lun Xun, generally acknowledged as the greatest modern Chinese writer for
his socially incisive short stories and essays, was a native of Shaoxin in
Zejiang Province, famous for its rice wine and legal clerks (who prepare
documents and "do deals" for government officials). His family was formerly
prosperous, with a grandfather who was a retired court official, unfortunately
involved in an examination bribery scandal and under a suspended death sentence
that caused a severe depletion in the family fortune because of the need to
give regular bribes to "defer" actual execution until he eventually got a
pardon. When Lu Xun was still in his teens, his father died, still
in his thirties, after a prolonged illness (which appears from Lu Xun's
description to have started as stomach bleeding from a ruptured ulcer, but
eventually resulting in kidney failure from the herbal medicines he was made to
take, something that put Lu Xun off Chinese medicine for life). This further
improvished his family. The contrast between people's treatment of his family
before and after the misfortunes, developed in him a deep sense of cynicism,
besides exposing the dark side of traditional Chinese culture to a person
who would normally have enjoyed its benefits.
Despite the downfall, he was able to use family contacts to get admitted
to "western" schools in his region, and then to the medical faculty of Tohoku
University in Japan. However, he abandoned his studies after two years to
take lessons from the scholar-revolutionary Zhang Taiyan, whose speciality
was ancient text analysis and authentication, and who was then in exile in
Tokyo. He also attempted to publish a magazine of foreign short stories
translated into Chinese to promote literature education. Also during
this period, he entered into an arranged marriage, more to acquire a companion
for his mother than for himself, while his younger brother married a Japanese
wife whom he met after following Lu Xun to study in Tokyo.
Even though he never completed any formal degrees, his foreign exposure
qualified him to be a science teacher in a government modern school back
home, shortly before the fall of the Manchu Government and the establishment
of the warlord republic, which created increased needs to replace imperial
officials with western educated new persons. He was briefly Principal of his
school as well as a director of a local newspaper, but found his situation
precarious because of the chaotic condition of the new local government.
Before serious crisis developed, however, he was invited to join the education
ministry in the capital Nanjing, and then moved to Beijing with the central
government when it relocated.
Because of low pay and frequent budget problems, officials were permitted
to moonlight, and Lu Xun both taught in Beijing universities and wrote
articles for publications edited by literary friends. His mother moved to
Beijing with his official wife to live with him, as did his brothers and their
dependents, all in one house in the patriarchal tradition. But then developed
the mysterious family crisis which will be addressed shortly. Two other crises,
one involving a group of his young followers, and one at Xiamen University,
will also be discussed.
Many biographies of Lu Xun exist, but most of these come from people
with an agenda. First are the family members, who were anxious to keep all
skeletons in the closet and present Lu Xun as "good person". Second are the
literary followers, who were anxious to present themselves as "good students".
Third are the propagandists, who want to present Lu Xun as "one of us".
Innocently or deliberately, they either ignore the mysteries or present a
picture convenient for their particular purpose without bothering to look
further into the situation behind the picture.
Despite all this, for the disinterested and impartial truth finder, enough
information can be extracted from the various sources to provide a reasonably
complete picture of each crisis. In particular, Lu Xun's own writings provide
quite reliable information: though at times he deliberately feigns ignorance
or failure to understand (e.g., his saying "I did not look into Yu Si affairs
and did not know who was editing it", to avoid mentioning that, as he knew
all too well, the magazine was edited by his estranged brother, and his
"it is ridiculous that I in Xiamen was being asked to solve a problem that
occurred in Beijing by someone in Shanghai", to avoid admitting that he was
siding with one group of his followers against another group over the magazine
Mang Yuan), and there can also be genuine errors and misunderstandings,
he was always careful not to write provable falsehoods. A whole picture
would frequently emerge by piecing together various items from different
sources.
2. Brotherly rupture
The communal home co-habited by the extended family of Lu Xun was purchased
using their share of cash from the sale of the ancestral home in Shaoxing that
used to house an even bigger extended family, and domestic expenses were also
pooled. Being the largest earner, the childless Lu Xun was subsidizing the
life style of his less well off brothers; this is what a traditional patriarch
is supposed to do, and he did it with no apparent signs of resentment; he was
known to be caring towards his nephews.
To point out the significant context: in the traditional system, a child-
less man would normally adopt a brother's son (or some other near male next
generation relative) as heir, who (and whose parents) would enjoy his property,
in return for keeping alight his "incense and candle" - it is believed that
without a male heir to perform ritual ceremonies, a soul would not be able to
rest. The result is somewhat like the Salic system with properties descending
to heirs male. Thus, Lu Xun would in effect see his nephews as his own sons,
as he had chosen not to consumate his own official marriage.
He was therefore rudely shocked when a quarrel arose between himself and
his sister in law, cumulating in his receiving a note from his brother "I just
discovered what a fool I have been; our past is merely pitiable; there is no
need for recrimination; just never come into my wing of the house again."
It is clear from the note that he was accused of having designs on
his sister in law. In fact, in view of the bitter attitude of the brother,
it seems likely that he suspected more than just immoral designs, but that a
past liaison had existed.
Lu Xun's response was extremely feeble (in terms of actions - his feelings
were certainly much harder and painful); he started taking his meals in his
own room instead of joining the family table, and then moved out altogether.
The brothers came to public blows a year later when Lu Xun went back to
retrieve some of his books and material, probably because of the brother's
idea that Lu Xun was spreading rumours about the sister in law's spending
habits, and a nasty article on the various southern names for hooligans
appeared not long after, presumably as a way to let off steam. On his side,
Lu Xun complained in a book preface of being robbed of his material. He was
also seriously sick after the event, and recovered only after several months.
Significantly, his mother sided with him, as well as another brother (who was
however to have his own marital problems, and his wife happened to be sister
of his brother's wife, so that there may be other factors in his choice), in
effect expressing doubts about the accusations, though some contact was
maintained. A few years later Lu Xun moved to Xiamen, Canton and then Shanghai
where he settled till his death, and no sibling reconciliation took place.
Posterity has been harsh to the brother, who had the misfortune of being
roped in to help the Japanese administration after Beijing fell during the War
- he had a Japanese wife and was a Japanese speaker - and so was branded a
traitor; his wife was said to be spoilt and extravagant (which is confirmed by
the financial problems they would constantly have, all the way even into the
Communist era when he eked out a living as a translator) and her accusation is
assumed to be just vengeful spleen upon being reprimanded by Lu Xun over her
shortcomings, convincing only to her henpecked husband. Another suggested
motive was the wish to take over the whole house, though a purely financial
reason is hard to believe as she would lose the benefit of Lu Xun's subsidy.
It is however difficult to account for Lu Xun's mild actions in response
if the accusations had been entirely groundless. Even out of concern for
family peace and reputation, welfare of the nephews, etc., one would not want
to simply let a ranting, vengeful woman triumphantly riding roughshod over
everyone else, since that could hardly be for anyone's long term good.
Yet, it seems highly unlikely that there was a sexual relation, because,
unlike many other artists and writers, Lu Xun does not appear to have been
a highly sexual person. Stuck with a wife he did not choose, he avoided
consumating the marriage altogether; he did not purchase himself a maid/
concubine, something that would be normal for a government official from a
traditional grand family (even one with an active sexual relation with his
wife) especially as he was childless. Several times female admirers came
close to him, but his reponse to them had been always hesitating - a prospect
of marriage with the sister of his friend Xu Qinwen lapsed, maybe because
she and her family were reluctant to accept the status of a junior wife, but
there was no story of him pushing hard for it, and his relation with the
woman who eventually became his common law wife in Shanghai, Xu Guang Ping,
was drawn out and very much on/off.
Again it is useful to put things into the particular cultural context:
For many Chinese and Japanese men of letters, sex would be the vulgar and
low class ending to a romance, and Red Chamber represents the pinnacle of
this mental romance ideology: females are made of water and clean; men are
made of earth and stinky. The unattainable object of distant admiration is
far better than just having someone to sleep with. If we view the quarrel
in this light, then the behaviour of the various parties involved becomes
much easier to understand.
For the husband, the mere existence of a mental romance between his wife
and brother would be a bitter blow, because to a literary man, this is as
bad as, maybe even worse than, just sex. Further, he had been accustomed
to enjoying the elder brother's protection and financial support on the
assumption of sibling love; that the benefit came from other motives
would come as a shattering awakening. While the bitterness looks incompreh-
ensible from the outside, the people involved in it knew better, hence the
tolerance and forebearance shown by Lu Xun.
But is there any evidence of such a mental romance? Lu Xun was certainly
protective and indulgent towards his sister in law, who was given charge of
the household finances rather than his mother or official wife, and who made
frequent demands on him including help for her family in Japan. Is there
something more than mere patriarchal possessiveness towards the women of the
tribe, in particular the mother of his future heir? Two curious pieces of
literary evidence seem relevant here.
In 1924 Lu Xun wrote a comical poem about being disappointed in love, and
a minor literary storm arose: Sun Fu Yuan, then editor of the Beijing Morning
Press Literary Supplement, accepted it for publication, but was overruled by
the chief editor. Sun resigned over this, and started the Yu Si (Threads of
Speech) magazine which, supported by Lu Xun and other figures of the Beijing
literary circle, became something of a classic of modern Chinese publishing.
This was just a few months after he moved house, and it seems relevant to ask
if there was a connection. In a 1930 article about the history of Threads of
Speech, Lu Xun explained that he was making fun of then current romantic novels
but a careful reading of the poem gives one the feeling of good humoured
acceptance rather than hypobolic sarcasm, and the explanation does not quite
ring true.
Also in 1924, Lu Xun published a collection of articles Text from Ai Hall
Bricks under the pseudonym Yan-zhi-ao, a name also used by a fictional avenger
character in the story Forging the Swords of 1926, but nowhere else. Now Yan
means banquet, Ao is to roam, while Zhi is just a connector so Yan-zhi-ao means
Banquet Roamer, but the interesting thing about the Chinese character Yan
is that it contains the two characters Ri (sun, or the Ja/Ni of Japan/Nippon)
and Nu (female), under the partial character representing roof or home. In
other words, Yan-zhi-ao could also be read as "exile from the house of the
Japanese woman", an interpretation confirmed by his second wife Xu Guang Ping
(who may have deduced it herself, without or without hints from Lu Xun.)
Again, the indication is of humorous or at least resigned acceptance, this time
not of a broken heart, but a broken home.
So it seems that Lu Xun continued to show an indulgent attitude towards
his sister in law - women are made of water and are not to be held responsible
for their actions; but doesnt that take generosity too far, if she had been
such an ungrateful and nasty character making completely groundless accusations
against him? At the same time, it seems unlikely that they had an actual,
physical affair, since it would less likely end with such good humour. A
spiritual kind of romance would fit the bill much better.
Two authors have suggested something a step further: Su Xue Lin, a Taiwanese
authoress with deep hostility to Lu Xun as person, despite admiration for him
as writer, wrote in 1971 "Lu Xun's sister in law was his old paramore in Japan"
and Qian Jia Ju, writing in 1992 in Ming Bao Monthly, a Hong Kong magazine,
said that he heard a story, coming to him second or third hand but supposedly
originating from an old friend of Lu Xun, that "they lived together in Japan".
While these are unsubstantiated gossip - for about a year, she was a
maid in the lodging house he stayed in, so they were living "in the same house"
rather than "living together" - we must add it to the rush of Lu Xun's
family to get him married after hearing a rumour that he had taken a wife in
Japan.
Lu Xun's own explanation, that one day he was helping a Japanese woman
to carry a baby, and ran into a friend just then, might describe an actual
event, though it is a bit curious that this occurred in spring 1906 when he
ought to be in Sendai rather than in Kanda, Tokyo where the event was set.
In any case, it is unlikely that this alone would have caused the friend to
report back to his home of him having a family - there must have been other
gossip on top of that to lead to such a drastic step. However, it is safer
to discount an affair, since Lu Xun's stay in Tokyo, between quitting medical
school in Sendai in order to return to Tokyo to engage in literary work, and
getting married back home, is rather short. As he returned to Japan with
his brother after his wedding in 1906 and they worked closely together during
the three years till the 1909 marriage, it is also very unlikely for an affair
to have occurred secretly between 1906 and 1909 when he returned to China.
On the other hand, it is entirely possible that Lu Xun was the one who
knew the girl first, as he tended to look after business matters on behalf
of brother and friends, and they took to each other, but their relation did not
develop beyond a spiritual one as he was already or soon would be married.
Instead he fostered a relation between her and his brother to "keep her in the
family", with disastrous consequences for the family. It is relevant to
mention that, despite his extensive biographical writing, the brother never
discussed the circumstances of meeting and marrying his bride, other than that
they met in April 1908, just over a year before their marriage, briefly in a
diary entry after her death on the same day of the year. He did write about
falling in love with another Japanese girl, the young sister of his landlord,
shortly after arriving in Tokyo. Disappointed there, he seemed to have fallen
for his bride on the rebound, and married quickly before his family had time
to object or do anything to prevent it. Did Lu Xun play a part in this quick
romance (which seemed to have lasted though)? Most likely we shall never
get to know the events in full.

3. Lu Xun's young followers
As a well known author successfully exposing the dark side of the old social
system and courageously introducing new, western ideas, Lu Xun attracted many
young followers, including his common law wife Xu Guang Ping who pursued him
with letters after taking lessons from him at Beijing Women's Normal College.
The student disturbances at that College, partly caused by the political and
diplomatic situation at the time, eventually resulting in violent suppression
and bloodshed, have been much reported on and, though not uncontroversial,
contain no mysteries for exploring. Here I will discuss the events related
to Wei Min (Unnamed, or more accurately, Not Yet Named) Society in Beijing
in the late 20s, and a quarrel with the left wing propaganda leaders in
Shanghai in the 30s shortly before his death.
Lu Xun often disclaimed any desire to lead movements, on the ground that
he lacked the cool ruthlessness needed to send followers into deadly struggles.
That may be so, and the bloody events he witnessed in Beijing and Canton
certainly shook him up. But he had no hesitation in engaging in literary
controversies and keeping arguments up both in duration and intensity, and his
high status as a socially relevant writer put him naturally at the head of
literary groups. What he disclaimed was the leadership of mass movements,
including even movements to push for particular mass literary trends.
His relationship with young followers may be described as mutually
beneficial or mutually exploitive, depending on one's level of cynicism.
While still contributing to Threads of Speech, then edited by his estranged
brother, he started another magazine Overgown Prairie (Mang Yuan) and a book
series under Wei Min Society, with the young members contributing material
and much of the editorial effort, mostly unpaid as the publications, like most
similar ventures, were hardly profitable businesses.
It is necessary to place this in the context of the traditional apprentice
system: a master craftsman or businessman, rather like a feudal lord accepting
homage, would "adopt" an apprendice in an official ceremony, with one side
swearing obedience and the other side offering protection and future prospects.
The apprentice lives in the master's house, initially not much more than an
indentured servant, but receiving training in the craft or trade, so that
with abilities and dedication, he could rise to be an important helper, ending
perhaps running part of the business or even as heir to the master if there
are no sons to take over. It was also not unusual for the master to set up
the apprentice in his own business with financial and other assistance in
competition to the master.
Hence, the young members of Wei Min Society would see themselves as
unofficial apprentices of Lu Xun in the craft of writing and publishing,
who could provide them with guidance as well as publishing contacts, and
saw the efforts they volunteered as part of the deal, even though there might
be complaints on either side on unmet expectations. A typical case of complaint
from Lu Xun's side: he was shown a set of short stories by Xu Qinwen, and
selected the better ones as suitable to publish; when the book turned out to
be very successful, the publisher encouraged Xu to produce another one, and
he responded by publishing the stories rejected by Lu Xun as inferior. This
upset Lu Xun as mercenary and he was less willing to spend time on Xu's
manuscripts subsequently.
Nevertheless, Wei Min Society ticked along from early 1925 to late 1926
peacefully enough, until Lu Xun left for Xiamen University and placed the
editorial control in the hands of one young member Wei Su Yuan, who proceeded
to reject (or to sit on) some manuscripts from members of a subgroup who were
then starting a separate venture Kuang Biao (Whirlwind). Their friend
Gao Chang Hong, who was editor of Kuang Biao, then made some ill tempered
complaints to Lu Xun, who did not respond, after which a series of articles
hostile to him appeared in Kuang Biao, basically saying that he had been
corrupted by his literary authority and influence, was intolerant of different
opinions, and obstructed new ideas.
The generally accepted story was that Gao was in love with Xu Guang Ping
and his hostility arose from disappointment and jealousy. The main evidence
was a poem published in Kuang Biao about Sun complaining that Night took away
Moon, and his frequent visits to Lu Xun's home during the period when Xu also
visited frequently. Both are inconclusive, since the former could mean many
things, and the latter was when he was actively helping with Wei Min Society
work. Xu herself had no idea of any romantic interest from Gao, who claimed
to have never conversed with her and seen her only once, though they had some
literary correspondence (exchanging nearly 10 letters over 2-3 months, which
Gao stopped after seeing Xu in Lu Xun's home and noticing her closeness to
Lu.) The first time Lu Xun discussed the idea was in a
letter to Xu "I heard from some people that Gao's attack on me was because
of a girl", going on to mention the poem and the many visits, and it appears
that the possibility had not occurred to either of them until then.
But even assuming that Gao was a disappointed secret admirer, there must
have been other, more work-related complaints since a whole group of the young
followers broke away from Lu Xun and showed varying levels of hostility that
lingered for some years. It seems the main cause of grievance was Lu Xun
selecting Wei Su Yuan as his "heir", rather than some other "apprentice" who
was more talented and who had made more contributions to Mang Yuan productions.
Wei's main literary work had been a translation of Gogol's short novel "The
Jacket", and being consumptive, was unable to take a high level of sustained
effort; the main reason he took control of the editorial work of Wei Min
Society was that his health prevented him from attending college like others,
and he was in effect the only full time worker. The analogy is perhaps the
faceless bureaucrat infuriating better qualified professionals by telling
them what to do.
A number of incidents indicate that Lu Xun tended to be hypersensitive to
implications of criticism from younger people. After the initial success of
Threads of Speech, Sun Fu Yuan made a somewhat insensitive remark about the
editorial managers of Beijing Morning Press "they didnt know they were stepping
on dynamite", and Lu Xun later wrote "I thought 'dynamite' referred to me, and
the remark bothered me for several days, but it did not stop me from continuing
to help...". He publicly lost his temper at Lin Yu Tang (see next section) at
a dinner when Lin made some careless remarks about Lu Xun's publisher giving
authors very late royalty payments - the man had earlier that day just paid
Lu Xun some money he owed, but blamed a rival publisher for stirring up trouble
between him and Lu Xun, and Lin was insensitive enough to talk about that guy,
giving the impression that this was being snidely referred to.
It would seem to be a quite tricky task for inexperienced young people
to offer different opinions to Lu Xun, and talking behind his back or talking
ambiguously with him would probably only make things worse by its appearance
of insincerity. While Lu Xun could openly and amicably disagree with his
own peers whose sincerity was not in doubt, he reacted sharply to any kind
of sneaky behaviour and snobbish attitudes, but unfortunately, keen but anxious
young people are all too likely to be just that way.
Several of his Wei Min followers mentioned that, after Xu Guang Ping started
visiting him regularly, some domestic rearrangement caused him to change from
meeting them in his private room/study to the outside living room, and they
jumped to the conclusion that she was staying there. While polygamy was common
among the older generations, it was seen as a feudal practice unacceptable to
the new generation. There could also have been some resentment that Lu Xun was
devoting too much energy to the causes Xu was associated with. A great deal of
gossip must have arisen, much to Lu Xun's annoyance. Hence, there were several
causes of friction on both sides, made worse by the sexual angle mixing in.
Whatever lessons Lu Xun learned from the Wei Min experience, 10 years later
another quarrel arose between his nonimal followers in Shanghai, this time
with politics playing a part. The city centre of Shanghai consisted of two
concession areas ceded to Britain and France, and was under international
rule. It provided a refuge for all kinds of people running away from the
government of China, and was a base for the Communist Party's united front
movement.
There was a Left Wing Writers' Union of which Lu Xun was a member. One day
he was warned by Zhou Yang, the Party propaganda chief, that a couple of
young journalist-authors associated with him, Hu Feng and Huang Yuan, were
government spies. When he ignored this, a follower of his who was a Party
member wrote him a letter which warned (though in very deferential terms)
him of coming under the sway of flatterers and conmen, which he proceeded
to publish with an angry reply rejecting slanders of his friends and judgement.
Before the quarrel blew up to anything big or long term, however, Lu Xun died.
Given the Communist Party's policy of united front and the Party being
anxious to claim him as "one of us", the incident was publicly forgotten, but
nearly twenty years later, when Shanghai was under Communist Party rule like
the rest of China, the "Hu Feng Faction" was given a public and sustained
purge from the literary circles, though this was soon forgotten too because a
much larger purge occurred shortly after with the Hundred Flowers movement.
Communists like to quote Sinclair "All writing is propaganda". Perhaps they
take it too literally; in so far as every writer's philosophy of life comes
through, all writing, including the most nihilist, has an ideological base, but
it does not follow "all writers are propagandists" who can be given marching
orders as part of a movement. While leaders of Left Wing Writers' Union were
sensible enough to defer to Lu Xun's statue, they could not quite accept
members who hid in his shadow and claimed to be doing things "his way" instead
of "our way".
Neither Hu Feng nor Huang Yuan amounted to a great deal creatively or
organizationally, but the mere fact that they were working with Lu Xun gave
them a weight that was greater than the sum of its parts. To be able to
to call oneself the heir of Lu Xun is a big deal, and perhaps he had not
been quite as vigilent to what his followers were thinking of in their minds.
4. Xiamen University
In 1921 a new university was started on the island of Xiamen off the coast
of Fujian with financial backing from overseas Chinese businessmen, mainly
based in Singapore. Because it offered generous salaries for prominent men
of letters in Beijing, just at the time when warlord oppression of dissidents
was increasing (Lu Xun was dismissed from his education ministry post following
student disturbances in 1925, and was nearly arrested in 1926. Later the
Beijing office of his book publisher and Wei Min Society were both forced to
close.) In 1926, it recruited a number of stars from Beijing to its Humanities
Faculty including Lin Yu Tang as Dean of Arts and Secretary General of Chinese
Literature Research Institute, Shen Jian Shi as Head of the Institute, Sun Fu
Yuan (the founder of Threads of Words, as Chief Editor) in addition to Lu Xun
(who had no administrative responsibilities).
Whereas most of China was then under warlord control, Fujian was an out of
way, not particularly wealthy province, not so interesting to fight over, and
the location of Xiamen detered any warlords from wanting to put their armies
there, since they could not easily retreat elsewhere. It was therefore left
to more or less to run itself. With many families having relatives in South
East Asia through past migration, Xiamen enjoyed particular commercial and
communication advantages. Things would seem to be promising, but they did not
turn out to be. Within half a year or so, all the literary stars were to
leave Xiamen, triggering off severe student disturbances that went on for
months.
Lu Xun left a number of descriptions of events at Xiamen in various writings
which however do not support the generally believed story of "reactionary
administration oppressing new ideas", though eventually the trouble did become
one of student-administration confrontation of young versus old. The actual
causes of the unhappiness of the Chinese writers, and Lu Xun's in particular,
were more complex and various. A simple counting of his literary output would
show that his few months in Xiamen were a highly productive period, and it was
certainly invalid to argue that he felt unable to do work because of adverse
conditions. Similarly, the view that the Xiamen University management wanted
Confucian studies rather than modern literature is hard to sustain, since
people like Lu Xun, Lin Yu Tang and Sun Fu Yuan were well known to be modern
writers. Why hire them at high salaries if one was looking for Confucian
scholars? Of course, how much discerning appreciation the management had for
modern literature is a separate question.
First Lu Xun made the complaint that the administration, dominated by the
Science Faculty, was interfering in and obstructing the affairs of the Arts
Faculty. This seems to be more of a locals versus outsider quarrel: most of
the Chinese Literature faculty were mandarin speakers (though Lin Yu Tang was
a Fujian native) who did not know the local dialect, and administation was
logically in the hands of locals who could communicate with the non-academic
staff and outside community. With its high salaried stars, the Chinese
Institute would be an expensive unit to run, and there was some anxiety
on the part of the administrators to ensure value for money. There need to
be nothing more sinister than that. While human envy and territorial ambition
must play a part, this would be no surprise to an experienced person like
Lu Xun and not unduly upsetting.
Second, he made the complaint "the university hires professors at
high salary, but expects us to show results single handed", citing as example
an exhibition where he had to put up his own old stone-tablet text-rubbings
for show. Now that is a common phenomenon at new universities, which do not
understand that the output of staff at established universities is highly
dependent on the infrastructure, not just facilities and bodies of staff,
but modes of operations, ways of thinking, skills and trusting contact that can
only come after years of practice. While this is irritating, and probably can
be damaging to the careers of less established professors, it was actually a
minor problem for Lu Xun, who could ignore expectations to put on good shows,
while his own work depended more on his existing publishing contacts elsewhere.
Third, he complained that he was treated as a celebrity, and people kept
wasting his time. That too was a real problem, but again a small one that
could be solved easily if he did not have to keep up appearance. There are
ways to keep people and social functions at arms length.
Fourth, and rather more serious, was his complaint that too many staff
of the wrong kind were being brought in from Beijing. To explain this, it is
necessary to remember the division in the Beijing literary community between
those who emphasized creativity and social relevance, and those who emphasized
scholarly research. The former often had no university degrees, and very few
had been overseas. They cared little about modern research methodology.
The latter group, typified and led by Columbia educated manuscript researcher
Hu Shi, were not only more "respectable" academically, they also tended
to have more official university positions, and better contact with government
officials and business leaders. In short, they tended to be "pro establishmet"
rather than "pro mass" figures. During student disturbances the two camps
were liable to be on opposing sides and Lu Xun had carried on long literary
feuds with some members of the other group. (Lu Xun's estranged brother shared
features with both sides and tended to be caught in between.)
Fifth, Lu Xun mentioned the incident of the chairs: he was given an
apartment to live in, supposedly the best furnished on the campus, but one
day an attendant came to remove his chairs, because the son of some VIP
was coming to visit and needed more furniture in his apartment. This trivial
incident upset Lu Xun very much because it reinforced his perception of the
power reality: for all the fuss made of him and the deferrence shown, he was
only a hired servant, whose priviliges, like the chairs, could be taken away
as quickly as they were given at the whim of some person or event.
What made things worse was the combination of the last two factors: When
his colleagues heard about the event, they were mocking rather than supportive
"here he goes again playing the prima donna"; and worse: his relation with Xu
Guang Ping was brought up in the gossip - "he is bad tempered because he misses
his girlfriend". Xu had left Beijing with him, but went to her hometown Canton
instead, because they agreed to have a period of separation to assess their
future relation, presumably to think over the question of whether both parties
were comfortable with what amounts to bigamy. With Lu Xun's already touchy
nature, the delicate situation about Xu, and the not so ideal work situation,
the malicious gossip (which presumably also dragged in his already married
status and the sister in law troubles) by colleagues he considered too inferior
to be there at all, would have really stung. He must have recalled the Chinese
proverb "The tiger that comes down to the plain gets bullied by dogs." In fact,
some subsequent articles he wrote about Gu Jie Gang, one of these colleagues
with whom he previously quarrelled in Beijing, led to threats of lawsuit; part
of the bad feeling arose from Lu Xun's impression that Gu was in league with
what he saw as the anti Lu Xun, reactionary faction, which turned out to be
incorrect because Gu himself left Xiamen not long after Lu Xun, and was making
complaints about the administration similar to Lu Xun's in letters to Beijing.
On top of the already precarious situation, the worsening financial postion
of the Singapore backers and the need to reduce subsidy to Xiamen gave added
stress. Given good will, such stringency can be survived and could even bring
people together, but in this case, rapport between administration and the
faculty, and between the arts and sciences sides, was lacking. Though the
initial move to reduce funding of the Chinese Insititute was reversed by the
president upon protest by Lu Xun, he saw the position as hopeless and left
for Canton in January 1927. Soon after, Lin Yu Tang and several others of the
Beijing staff followed suit because the student troubles that broke out with
Lu Xun's departure made peaceful work almost impossible. In Lin's particular
case, he was invited to join the new Nationalist Government established in
Wu Han after the successful Northern March against warlords, and saw the
prospect there to be more promising than trouble ridden Xiamen.
Instead of a simple "new versus old" struggle, it is better to see the
failure of Xiamen to maintain their impressive recruitment success as a case of
biting off more than could be chewed. Xiamen was (still is) an out of way city
isolated from the most exciting social and artistic developments of China,
and its catching so many stars of Beijing was an accident of history. It did
not have the knowledge and logistics to figure out what to do with them to
keep them happy and productive. More subtle minded and well informed management
might have succeeded; given what it had, failure would have been difficult to
sidestep.

 

 


 

红学

阮宗光著
研究红楼梦可说是大中华(因为台湾香港外国都有,包括西方学者 - 张爱玲也参加过)的一个文化工业,规模非常庞大,不过简直是越研究越乱;这倒是是有点象英国侦探小说柯南道一边做医生一边写福尔摩丝故事引起的结果:一个个短篇随手写来,很多福氏和他朋友华生的生平细节都配不起来,所以后来的福迷们研究时,发现华生一会儿娶老婆一会儿老婆死了搬回去贝客街住发生了三四次。。。
我看过的研究中,最记得得是戴不凡和刘心武的文章。戴老指出红楼梦前段内容混杂,是因为有两股不同的叙述掺在一起,一股来自原名“风月宝鉴”的小说,是类似“金瓶梅”的警世故事,颇有淫秽内容,有不少地方经过改写删除;另一股来自曹家的琐碎家事,内容比较温柔细致。最明显的证据是贾宝玉的年纪或大或小,比如同贾珍冯紫英蒋玉菡等人喝酒行令一段,他至少要有十六七岁,但后来跑进林黛玉史湘云睡房替湘云盖好被子一段中,他应该只有十一二岁,否则就不成体统了;他在秦可卿出殡时遇见北静王,王爷赏他一个扇坠,由王府回家在王夫人怀里撒娇等等情节都不是16-7岁的男人的行为。
秦可卿应该是风月宝鉴的主要人物,以焦大的爬灰醉话和死后贾珍悲恫来看,两人有私通的情节但已经删去。刘心武则指出秦可卿应该出身高贵,家族可能遭到灭门之祸因年幼免死进了孤儿院,由贾家指示贫户秦家收养再嫁入贾家做了年纪比她小几年的贾蓉的妻子,不但被贾珍染指,还有引诱比贾蓉更年轻的贾宝玉的事情。刘心武发表了分析文章后大概得到了太好的反应,把这题材拿来商业化,写了几篇不但有性,还有武侠内容的小说,我看了觉得很扫兴。他大概受了台湾作者高阳的影响。(高阳有一段李洵强奸媳妇不成媳妇自杀,是解释秦可卿另一种说法,还硬加了林黛玉“身子干净”的话令我看了啼笑皆非。)
曹家因为几次接驾花费过度亏空了织造府资金引起后来运作不良,又树大招风常有人来向他们要钱花,康熙死前有靠山可以顶下去,雍正继位后就每下越况,听了告密以致抄家,这些历史相当清楚。传说抄出一对金狮子是雍正的对头送的,这如果正确是极危险的事,不过后来并没有到灭门的地步,甚至因为抄家后看到曹家并无隐藏财产,雍正略有些歉意从宽发落。这些都反映在书中。
Mysteries of the Red Chamber
Much controversy has surrounded the origins of the Qing Dynasty novel Dreams of the Red Chamber. While it is generally agreed that the novel was closely linked with the family history of Chao Xueqin, a poverty striken poet-painter descended from several generations of well connected royal household officials of the Manchu emperors, much obscurity exists regarding his biographical details and his authorship. Arguments have been advanced about exactly where the author (or authors) fit in the Chao family tree, whether Chao Xueqin wrote the whole novel, part of it, was merely the editor of someone else's work or unrelated to it altogether, whether the last 40 chapters were forged by someone else or the genuine continuation of the first 80, and by whom if forged, and whether the novel deserves its high literary reputation. Theories about it being politically motivated or a fictionalization of palace intrigues have also been advanced.
The ideas I discuss here are not my own. Rather, they are a composition of several theories which strike me as being the least far fetched and able to explain more of the evidence, in particular the inconsistencies between the first, middle and last parts of the novel. Red Chamber starts off as some kind of moralistic tale, with much description of a dissolute lifestyle containing both illicit heterosexual relations and homosexuality, and hints that these will subsequently lead to serious retributions. It soon went into a more genteel and romantic vein, with poor handling of human relationship and family finance due to vanity becoming the main vices. The final part tries to wrap everything up as best it could, but not always successfully.
A number of inconsistencies in part 1 have been pointed out: in some sections, Jia Baoyu is clearly still in his early teens (throwing tantrums before grandma; being petted by his mother; being asked about his age by Prince North and given a souvenir; going into the bedroom of female cousins while they are still sleeping); in other parts (drinking and composing bedchamber poems; making friends with actors) he is clearly older; the mixed use of northern and southern dialects, and details of cooking, plants and weather which mix up northern and southern situations. These only make sense if we accept the theory that the part is the edited version of an earlier manuscript that is more like Plum in Golden Vase, a well known pornographic novel, written by someone whose main experience was in southern China, but edited by another person based in northern China, who then continued to write the rest of part 1 of the novel.
This fits in with recorded Chao family history: the family was running a silk weaving and other luxury goods supply operation for the palace in the south, then returned north after getting into trouble over poor financial management and quality control, as well as peripheral involvement in an imperial succession dispute. Several edited manuscripts exist showing that besides the main author/editor, most probably Chao Xueqin, and the earlier author, most probably an older relative, there is another, senior figure who was reading the novel as it was being written and ordering changes. A major deletion relates to Qin Keqin, the beautiful and mysterious daughter-in-law of the Eastern Mansion who died early. There were various indications in the storyline and the annotations that the novel originally depicted her as a highly immoral character who seduced Jia Baoyu and carried on an affair with her father in law, and her death was by suicide. Further, a plausible theory was advanced about her origin: the storyline says she was adopted from an orphanage by the poor but genteel Qin family; how was it possible for her to marry into the high class Jia family and be allowed to carry on with such abandon? It was suggested that she was originally a high born person whose family lost out in a palace power struggle and was exterminated, with the young children sent to orphanages, from which she was rescued by sympathizers. Certainly if the original novel contained such episodes, then it becomes easier to understand why enough details have been left behind for political messages to be read into the novel.
A well known story says that Chao Xueqin spent years editing his novel, with 120 chapters, but his landlady burnt the final 40 as ghost money after his death, though certain fragments were rescued by a family friend who read the novel earlier and remembered parts of it. His adopted son Gao E then made a reconstruction from what information was available and got a friend to publish the whole work. He or his publisher friend also tried to "tidy up" the earlier chapters. This story is in itself unlikely, since there ought to be multiple draft manuscripts in existence as shown by the various gener- ations of annotations that survived. However, the story indicates that there were various people with knowledge of the manuscript so that sooner or later, someone would attempt a reconstruction, the reasonable way to explain why, on the one hand, the last 40 chapters are generally of a poorer literary quality and fail to wrap up all the loose ends, with many clear hints of the earlier parts leading nowhere, but on the other hand, the last part does seem to continue the spirit of the novel rather well. While doubts remain about how good the raw material used by the reconstructors were and how great was their knowledge of the original ideas, the novel as a whole has stood the test of time.
With the complex history and numerous printed editions from several annotated manuscripts, one can find evidence from the book to support almost any theory one cares to advance. The theory outlined here is however simple and general enough to accommodate numerous enhancements and insertions of detail. It need not stop anyone from further research and argumentation.

 

 


 

我认识张悦然
阮宗光著
(上面的照片不是她,是一位很像她的日本歌星长谷部优,比她大概小三年,样子也更稚气亮丽)
1。 张悦然有什么好?
似是似非李商隐,莫失莫忘张悦然
为求功名通八股,更慕才情思建安
子曰诗云开口易,前因后果寻路难
樱桃葵花谢复开,故人黄鹤不重见
文自嚣艳人自凜,明星手段才子心
威震中原玄女鼓,悲働炎帝素娥琴
空屋孤燭憶沉和,瑩燈滿月照易經
桃花當隨流水去,霜雪長伴松柏青
在80后一代的新文学写手之中,张悦然是最得到老一辈作家认同的,比如“红高粱”作者莫言就说
"张悦然出生于八十年代,现在还在念大学,但她已在小说创作的探索中走得比较远了。她的小说不以故事取胜,但凭靠对外在世界和个人心灵的敏锐体察和聪颖感悟,细细密密地串起了一串串梦想的文字珠链,便营造出了一个个五光十色、美轮美奂的奇景。强烈的梦幻色彩使她的小说显得超凡拔俗而又高贵华丽。她的小说,读起来既冷嗖嗖又暖烘烘,既 朦胧又明澈,既真切又虚幻。。。。"
上面登着我写的两首诗,表达了我对她的高度赞赏(包括了一些诗意的夸张),但也呈现了一种两人之间的代沟隔膜,而且后来的事情显出这隔膜代沟是无法跨越的。
张悦然作品的销路比不上韩寒和郭敬明,但这两位一个已经放弃写作专职赛车,一个一再被发现作品有抄袭的内容,说他们年纪轻轻,已是江郎才尽,并不过分,而张悦然显出更高更长远的发展潜力,因为她的作品里可以看到极好的文学本质功力:优美的词藻显示她运用文字的能力,奥妙的情节显示她的丰富想象力。 如果她在长大的过程中得到更深厚的人生经历和有程度的思想,同她的文学能力结合起来,肯定能创造出比现在价值高出很多的作品。
另一点令我对她特别看好的是,由她以前同记者一些谈话看来,这个小女孩对现代文学的认识极有深度,包括外国的文学。 (举例请看我翻译成英语的几篇她的随笔
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=77
原文在 http://underthepink.cn ) 而且读读她谈论文坛的一些事件讲话的口吻,可以在这小女孩身上看到一种出人意料的世故和成熟,比如最近白烨批评韩寒的事情:
-------------------------
“80后”作家力挺韩寒
长辈放一边,对错最重要
文 /记者 陈潇俊  
说到底,“韩白之争”的一方不应该是韩寒,而是白烨文章中的“ 80后”作家群体。韩寒开骂后,“ 80后”的态度如何?
  张悦然 评论只能凭良心
  我们这代人走的路不太一样,基本上没有通过文学期刊被人了解,然后再进入作协。我们的作品出版很容易,所以我们是先有了自己的读者,从他们那里获得了自信和认可。在我出第二本书时,心理上还是个孩子,那时候真的特别希望大人能看到我的书。现在,我的读者也成长了,我自己也是成年人了。所以,在心理上,我觉得那方面的认可没那么重要。
  白烨还提出“票友写作”的问题,我觉得,是不是专业作家就一定好,也有待探讨。曾经就有老作家对我说,在年龄比较小的时候,就专门从事写作这一件事,是行不通的,应该进行多方面的尝试。所以我觉得像韩寒这样的生活方式,对写作也是有帮助的。“票友写作”并不影响我们的诚意和写作的质量。
  “80后”中确实也有很多人,是为了市场、为了“名利双收”而投身写作的,但很多人还是在为了纯文学写作,很单纯。不过,文学评论家确实很少对我的作品进行很深入的分析和批评,很多热心的读者倒是一大段一大段地评。我觉得评论家的评论,都是冲着人来的,他们可能是在观望,看这个人是不是在若干年后能留得下来,等真正成熟了,才会对作品进行深入分析。
  白烨对我也有很多认可,他的这些观点也代表了一些长辈对我们的看法。说实话,我觉得评论没什么标准,只能凭自己的良心了。
--------------------------
2 我怎样认识张悦然
张悦然自2002年7月开始成为我们系的学生,但我一直不知道有这个人,是在2005年9月一个偶然的机会才认识她的,这件事的经过我已经写在http摘一段在下面:
“"老师,我想找一位学生叫张小跳,他在那里上课?"

"几年级的?"

"他2004来,现在四年级"

"四年级学生选课人人不同的,很难找的;你找他做什么?"

"我是他的读者,想找他在这本书上签个名"
。。。。
张小跳中午过后才来的;他可以回复那位追星族了

完全不像我们的学生;连商学院法学院这样打扮的也不多

但脸色憔悴,好像不光是睡得晚,有点受不起压力的样子

眼是有点像小染,不过没表情,连忧伤也没有,好像是书面上那朵花已经砍了下来,砍了下来

她放下签好的书准备离开的时候,他忍不住开口

"张小姐;以后你有什么地方需要帮助,可以来找我"

她出去了; 不知道有没有听到那句话; 不过算了,自身难保..

他转向电脑,再去找他论文
。。。
又有人敲门,进来的是张小跳;今天的打扮像学生了,但还是比人家多了一点点东西;比方那戒指不但大了一点,镶着好像是紫水晶不是玻璃

"张小姐;好久不见;坐下来谈"

半年没见到她了;也许因为赶得急,脸有点红红的,不像上次苍白,眼也比较明亮

"李老师;上次您说我有事可以找您帮助..."

"是啊;是功课上有困难吗?"

"不是;我成绩是不大好,不过能毕业就行了;我是想问您我以后出路的问题"

"是申请工作填表要填推荐人吗?这是官样文章,随便填个名就好了"

"也不是;我看见您有翻译一些李商隐的诗,想请您帮助翻译我的作品"
。。。
“翻译?要出英文版吗?会有市场吗?"

"我在做个网站介绍中国新文学给海外,先用我自己的材料,但我的英语来了四年都没学好,希望您能帮我;我现在不能付翻译费,希望以后做得到"

"你不用去找工作吗? 还要写书,有那么多时间?"

"那些计算机的工作我不想做,也做不了;我的稿费能维持生活,希望搞个教育性的网站就能满足那六年服务的要求"

她的眼真是像小染,但是恳求的眼光里少了些信心,多了些忧伤

上次来的时候,她是以作者的身份来替她的读者签书,一个女孩扮成一个世故女人的样子,今天她回复成女孩,一个需要老师扶持,培养的女孩

。。。”
小说的情节虽然同真实事情不同,也够准确了。(我的笑话寓言永久女孩
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=6
也是看到了她以后,对今天的女孩太快成长为女人有所感触而写的,后来还几次用不同方法说“太早懂事的孩子更需要得到保护,因为他们不知道自己脆弱的地方” - 到现在我还不肯定这些想法是否一种误判。)
3。80后 - 失落的一代
张悦然1982年出生,那时文革已经是历史,六四事件的时候刚进小学,开始成熟的时候已到了开放,拼经济,去政治化的时代。 旧的传统道德观念早给文革打破了,马列主义毛泽东思想也快是穷途末路。所以80后一代是没有现成信仰的;他们的精神支柱是什么?除了钱,他们的人生目标在哪里?这一点莫言在谈张悦然的时候也有提到:
"张悦然的小说大都是悲剧。刀子一样锋利的语言,珠贝一样闪闪发光的思想,她用小说来营建高于现实的生活,并向这种生活伸出丰富而茂密的心灵触须,她的作品充满了凌越现实的巨大冲动和使人警醒的批判力量。当然,在现实生活中,在别人眼里,她可能生活得很好很贵族。但我们会听到她斩钉截铁地反驳说:我非悲剧,而悲剧永在我心中!怀抱爱,怀抱梦幻,怀抱深切的悲楚,这使小说中呈现的他们因充满忧伤而高贵异常。在他们心中,爱高于一切!包括生命。他们坚守着这样的信条,为自己鼓着劲,慰藉并搀扶着自己极易受伤的心。可以这么说,张悦然的小说说出了一代人的希冀与痛楚。他们渴望被理解,被关爱--更重要的是,他们需要学会照看好自己,自己的梦及所信奉的一切,一点一点长大。成长,在我们的小说中是一个言之不尽的话题。尽管爱情对他们这个年龄而言是五颜六色的气泡,苍白易碎,永远不可抵达,永远都在彼岸,不过这没关系,他们在探索、在辨别、在行进,在一点一点步入成年的营垒"
但我们也不必过分可怜80后的少年们,他们的头脑也许空洞,但口袋里常有点钱的,他们是中国开放的受益者;成年一辈开放后忙着谋生,连看书的时间也没了,但中学生还没这个问题,所以写给少年看的书反而比给大人看的书更有市场。80后写手出的作品也许没什么思想,没什么概念,甚至连配个完整的故事,也比不上五四时代给鲁迅大骂的蝴蝶鸳鸯派,但它符合了新中国的一个潮流,满足了大批读者的需要,是不能说它没有文化社会价值的,因为它本身就是一种文化,就是表现了社会未来主人翁的价值。但很多老一辈文人看了这个不顺眼,因而产生韩白之争这类的事件,也是可以了解的。
我已经说过前辈们对张悦然的印象是比较好的,网上骂她的话反而是年轻人的多。而第一多是骂她长得难看。其实她长得相当不错 (虽然网上的照片有好有坏,尤其是上电视的摄影常不准确)而且一个作家漂不漂亮跟作品好坏本来是无关的,不过用脸,甚至更多身体的部分,做推销书的宣传工具,也是开放后中国的潮流之一,加上出版商记者把她冠上了“玉女作家”的美称,不免引起观众问问是否“货真价实”。
张悦然自己似乎有点高估了自己的美貌:
“我艳不可挡。”

——张悦然在央视一次访谈中语出惊人
不过这有点断章取义,所以要看原文
张悦然:我觉得我一直都特别喜欢两个词用在我的写作里面,一个是沉和,沉是沉重的沉,和是和睦的和,然后还有一个嚣艳,嚣是嚣张的嚣,艳是艳丽的艳,我觉得这两个词既是我本人的两面,也是写作中的两面,我觉得写作当中既有那种特别稳妥,特别深重的东西,也有颜色特别浓郁的跟我们这种年龄特别相称的东西,我觉得这是一种骨子里的东西,就像我今天穿非常素的衣服,一样艳不可挡。
另外在“高贵的请先死去”中有“张小跳记得肖复兴在他的音乐笔记上写到Nico的时候这样说,一个女人无论是单纯拥有美貌或者单纯拥有才华,都会是幸运的,可是一个女人如果既拥有美貌又拥有才华,就注定要不幸。张小跳非常同意这句话,不过这还是不能改变她从小到大要做一个才貌双全的姑娘的梦想。这样说来,她一直在为做一个厄运人而奋斗。”“谁杀死了五月”也一再说女主角美。虽然这些是小说,但女主角同自己这么相似,难相信完全没有说自己美的想法在内。
另一句多骂的话是心理变态,把爱写得这么畸形可怕;这我在我的小说也有提到
“这几年来他一直像个大哥哥哪样呵护着小跳,不光是因为欣赏她的才华,还因为他开头心里老有个恐惧,怕小跳作品里常见的恐怖片断,是显示她个性中的黑暗面,有一天会暴发出来;好象有一个故事,说一个女孩杀了他父亲,用他的血来涂嘴,因为有个男孩说她嘴太苍白,红一点就会是美人

达唱并不怕小跳会杀了他拿血,但他想明白为什么小跳喜欢这样写,还有那些女主角逃走但弄来弄去又回到原地的片断,是不是因为小跳觉得身处困境无法逃避,还有几次写女孩失贞的经历,说来说去只是流血叫痛。。。

别人说她交男朋友受了伤害,信了邪教等等,他不大相信;他觉得小跳只是个小女孩装大人,自己的经历并不多;有些两小无猜的爱情片断像是真实的,但还是可能从朋友那里听来;他看到一段女孩在吃猪血面,男孩说他的愿望是开猪血面店,就每天可以请她吃,笑了出来;人生的复杂性,她大概是不懂的

比方在新加坡,那故事应该是在寿司店里,一位大师傅当场揉米饭切生鱼做出来,分给两人吃,女孩觉得那手艺真了不起,男孩说他的愿望。。。不过达唱的结局很刹风景:寿司师傅出账单时,不但看客人吃了多少用了多少贵料,还看客人有没有同师傅谈话沟通;两人只顾谈情说爱,师傅收他们很贵
渐渐地他体会到,小跳只是用文字画图,画些引人注目的恐怖图,而那些恐怖的东西,只是跟童话里的女巫鬼怪一样没什么大害的,王子一出现,白雪公主喉咙里的毒苹果马上就吐出来,而且有七个小人一直在照管她的棺材,清除周围的树木杂草,留一条路让王子的马轻轻松松的跑到棺材边,棺材又是玻璃的,王子一眼就能看到她多么美丽;不过睡美人的王子比较倒霉,不但要杀龙,还要砍树找路,精疲力尽跑到公主身边,还要擦掉她脸上的蜘蛛网,才看到她美不美值不值得亲一下

当然睡美人故事在说,一个女孩有了心爱的男子,才会成为一个女人,而男子要得到女孩,必须经过考验,看出他的忠诚毅力;但在今天的世界里,这简直是荒唐的思想;现在的女孩个个都不要做女孩,要快快变成女人,哪里有耐心等,何况等久反而会失去机会,因为周围的世界变得太快;。。。人生的鬼怪,不会像童话里那样,太阳一出就消失,也不是叫叫口号谈谈道德就可以打垮的,口号的用处只是让大家照着去建立起一套社会的机制,控制人的缺点,发挥人的优点;但是口号容易看到,机制难做,做了也不一定看到它好坏,因为每一种机制都会对至少某些人不方便”
还有一些骂的话是自恋,恋父和同性恋;这要在下一节再谈。这里想说的是,张悦然的题材,和读者对她的评论,好的也好坏的也好,真好证实了莫言的说法,80后这一代的眼光是狭窄的。成年后的张悦然能不能跳跃出这个境界,现在还很难说,因为境界内的成功很容易令人觉得外面的东西不重要,不必花力气制造一个突破。
4。张悦然的童话人生
控制我们周围的世界是人的天性,也就是因此发明科技,但这对艺术人士同样适用,他们能自己塑造一个比现实更美好,受他们控制的世界;小说尤其是童话的世界,里边的角色,通常比自己在实际生活中碰到的更理想。
张悦然的理想世界是怎样的?她想看到的人是什么?崇拜张悦然的读者常称她做天使女神小公主,她自己也说过“一个编辑说我是"不会贴着地面走路的人",可能我走着走着就飞起来了,这也是我小说的一个特点。”这恐怕不只是诗意的夸张,张悦然常给人一种不受人间束镈的感觉,因为人不过是她故事内的角色,而作者是处于范围之外的,以她过人的想象力超越了人间。在她的世界内,角色只能照她需要的剧情行走,不理想的角色是不能参与的。
通常女主角是个聪明美丽,努力奋斗的女孩,是作者对自己的理想。男人要就是个开始老的中年人,要就是个娘娘腔的男孩。她对中老年男人,有英雄崇拜(水仙,五月)又有鄙视(小染,夜房间,红鞋)很矛盾,这在葵花中已经很明显,凡谷既是天才又是疯子,他虽然是葵花和女巫两人爱的对象,但同两人都无沟通,反而女巫同葵花有沟通;在张悦然的随笔里,有沟通的是女孩,如小舞(即同学-同房-封面设计者颜禾),nude 女诗人一电脑系同学,bosnia即上海作家周嘉宁,男孩同她只有朦朦胧胧,若有若无的“爱”,而且男孩常是同性恋者;十爱里对爱的印像,包括言情类的五月,基本上是坏的。好几个故事讲性觉醒(如小染在路上遇到男孩,桃花中果果偷了小染男友),但后果通常不好。
小染,夜房间,红鞋里女孩能把中年男人任意摆布,或许反映了青年读者的一种心理需要,但也显出作者阅历有限。张悦然见过的男人,恐怕不是人人都那么庸俗无能,也许有些面对小女孩,因惜才爱美或另有企图,把自己厉害的一面暂时收藏了。幻想一些恐怖的童话场面,跟了解真实人生的险恶,还是有很大距离的。
张悦然这两段话是相当暧昧的
还有我的小姐妹颜禾,这个姑娘仍旧和我换穿鞋子,彼此诋毁对方身边出现的男子,生怕有人夺了自己在对方心里那块重得不能再重的地方
鞋子把脚磨破了。很沮丧。回去换了小舞的鞋子再下来继续跳。忽然想到了什么,再上楼,把小舞枕头下面的卡片拿出来,添了一句话。 我说:小舞,你什么都好,我爱你的穿过梦透出来的微笑,乱蓬蓬的红色头发,还有还有你这38号的脚丫。
但在童话的世界里,只有骑着白马的王子来找美女,同性恋和女权主义都是不存在的东西,因为天使女神(或女巫)已经自然地控制了这个世界。所以对张悦然有意见的人,先要弄清楚这一点。
看看张悦然讲自己的生平,是十分缤纷多彩的,十四岁开始写作但爸爸反对,同要好的女友在初二时商定要在同一天失贞,被同性恋男孩追求,高中打扮太漂亮被学校领导骂,保送清华取消所以没好好高考,同毛毛上电台说“我们的感情不是爱”,去新加坡选读电脑,男友打电话不说话只听放硬币进电话声音,后来另一个整天在网上同她联络,海啸后作义工历险#,留恋济南但宁愿住北京过清苦生活以免舒服日子影响写作干劲。。。是不是有一位天使(或女巫)在编剧本,刻意把张悦然放进去让她成为一个特别的人有特别的经历?这倒是还要好好研究的。
我已经很久没见到张悦然了,虽然她还在我们系里做学生修最后两门课满足毕业到要求。我有翻译几篇小说和随笔
Translation of Zhang Yueran's 张悦然 Peachblossom Salvation 桃花救赎
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=59
Translation of Zhang Yueran's 张悦然 Sunflower 葵花
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=58
Translation of Zhang Yueran's 张悦然 Story Xiaoran 小染
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=57
Translation of short story by Zhang Yueran (张悦然)
http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-XIIfDzQobqO5oCYM9UTvZzgKHH4Org--?cq=1&p=9
但没有继续下去,因为我们两边的剧本配合不起来,剩下的只是朦胧的回忆
花带仙露人带玉,芙蓉塘边依山居
遥望碧城不多时,醉忆清梦天明去
出格要趁早,明星能打造
金童快车去,玉女热风飘
小技况越下,名家步自高
目宽望人众,气长任路遥
观音能救世,佛祖多慈悲
割肉饲饿虎,化雨洒晶泪
万字半日写,千丝一手挥
独怜杜秋娘,曲尽人憔悴
逢莱玉女下凡来,神授仙乐金石开
瑶池温水浸凝脂,桑林嫩叶铺华盖
七夕勾月照牛郎,三更灵钟呼蓝采
天界人间路迢迢,俗夫空对云梦台
--------------------------------
#2005 1月底到2月中她在各地为水仙签售,地震是3月28日,4月8日她回国领奖,中间还要上课,所以能用来做义工的时间很短